First, the articles summary:
To test the understanding of the applicants with the types of risk factors and mechanical intrinsic basic safety requirements of main devices and places during the manufacture and use of machinery.
Second, the important points, tough points:
(1) Understand the primary categories of mechanical items;
(2) Understand the intrinsic safety requirements of mechanical design and the type of safety device of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler space, air compressor place, gas train station, oxygen station, acetylene train station dangerous point and general safety technology management requirements.
Third, the content material explains:
Machinery is a device that is assembled by a amount of interconnected components and may perform certain features. During the operation of the mechanical apparatus, at least some of the comparative actions are made relating to certain rules. The complete mechanical device includes a best mover, a control and control system, a transmitting system, a support gadget and an actuator.
Machinery is an essential products in contemporary creation and lifestyle. While bringing high efficiency, acceleration and comfort to people, the machine also brings mechanical damage such as influence, extrusion, cutting and various other nonmechanical risks such as electrical surprise, sound and high temperatures during its manufacture, operation and use.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the entire process of production and use of machinery, from various dangerous factors. Mechanical protection contains two elements of the basic safety of mechanical product manufacturing and the protection of mechanical products.
1.1, mechanical product production safety
(1) Main groups of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The primary items of the machinery market are as follows:
(1) Agricultural machinery: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting equipment, etc.
(2) Heavy mining machinery: metallurgical equipment, mining machinery, lifting equipment, loading and unloading machinery, commercial and mining vehicles, cement products, etc.
(3) Construction equipment: forklifts, earthmoving machinery, compaction equipment, cement machinery, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical substance machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic material processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electric machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electric motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electric welding devices, household devices, etc.
(6) Machine tools: metallic trimming machine equipment, forging devices, foundry equipment, woodworking machinery, etc.
(7) Automobiles: trucks, road buses, cars, modified vehicles, motor bikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automated equipment, electric devices, optical tools, element analyzers, automotive instrumentation, electrical products, audio-visual devices, cameras, etc.
(9) Simple equipment: bearings, hydraulic parts, finalizes, powder metallurgy products, regular fasteners, industrial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging products, metal containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, atmosphere pollution prevention equipment, solid waste materials treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Other machinery.
The primary products of the nonmechanical industry include railway equipment, construction machinery, textile machinery, light commercial machinery, and underwater equipment.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Basic safety design minimizes risk. Mechanical protection design refers to the correct form and relatives position from the component material to the component in the mechanical design stage, from limiting the operating pressure, the quality and swiftness of the moving parts to reducing noise and vibration, using intrinsic security technology and power supply, applying zero The process of forced mechanical action between elements, combined with ergonomic concepts and additional methods, avoids or decreases the risk by choosing suitable style buildings; it can also enhance the dependability, operation mechanization or automation of the devices and Procedures such as adjustments and maintenance outside the risk zone to prevent or decrease the danger.
Inbuilt safety is definitely a mechanical safety method that is usually adopted by mechanical designers to take measures to remove mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic safety technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions by using this technology. It can satisfy the safety requirements of the machine itself when performing established features of the machine under established circumstances without using other security safety measures. These include: staying away from sharp sides, sharpened corners and bulges; making sure sufficient basic safety distances; determining limits on physical amounts; using intrinsically safe processes and power resources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a adequate safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Protection of materials and materials
Materials, fuels, and materials used to produce machinery have to not endanger the security or wellness of staff during use. The mechanical properties of the materials, such as tensile power, shear power, impact toughness, yield limit, etc., should meet the weight requirements for performing the designed function; the material should become able to endure the predetermined environmental conditions, such as corrosion resistance, aging level of resistance, and resistance. The capability to put on; the material should have uniformity, prevent the metallographic framework of the material from being uneven due to unreasonable procedure design, and generate residual stress; at the same period, avoid using poisonous components or substances, and should prevent the machinery itself or credited to use. The risk of open fire and explosion from gases, liquids, dust, vapors or additional substances created by certain components.
4) Fulfilling basic safety ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the basic safety china pulleys man-machine engineering principle is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space design, etc., enhancing the operability and dependability of mechanical gear, and making the operator’s physical power Intake and psychological tension are minimized, thus reducing functional errors.
5) Protection concepts for developing control systems
During the utilization of machinery, the common dangerous conditions are: unintended start, out of control of speed modify, motion can easily not end, moving mechanical parts or workpieces fall off, the function of protection products is definitely obstructed. The design of the control system should consider into accounts the operating settings of the numerous operations or the use of fault display products so that the user can handle them securely.
6) Prevent the problems of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Machines that make use of pneumatic, hydraulic, thermal, and other gadgets have to be designed to avoid the potential risks associated with accidental discharge of these energies.
First, the articles summary: